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Role of Information Technology and Nanotechnology in Finding Cure for Cancer and Type 1 Diabetes


Role of Information Technology and Nanotechnology in Finding Cure for Cancer and Type 1 Diabetes


 

WHO states the cancer and Type 1 diabetes cases are increasing at rate of 5 to 8% globally. 

Summary

The World Health Organization says that all types of cancers are the foremost causes of deaths in the world with approximately 8.2 million in 2012 alone. 30 percent of cancer fatalities are the result of diet risks; excessive body mass index or BMI; low consumption of fruits and vegetables; insufficient exercise; and, use of alcohol and tobacco. Over 60 percent of cancer cases took place in Asia, Africa, South America, and Central America. The WHO expects the figures to rise to 22 million within the next 20 years. Type 1 Diabetes is acknowledged as the most common type of Diabetes globally. It affects mostly youngsters. The United Sates has the third biggest number of confirmed Diabetes cases worldwide with 17.9 million and another 5.7 million have not been diagnosed. The highest is in Finland followed by Sardinia. The incidence of Type 1 Diabetes is growing by three to five percent all over the world. 

Introduction

Type 1 diabetes can happen at any age in a person’s life. Yet, it is frequently diagnosed among children and teenagers.

Adults can also contract this disease. The ailment is described as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. It is a recurring condition.

Human pancreas generates insufficient or no insulin at all. Hormones are required to allow sugar or glucose to enter cells that will generate energy. A variety of factors may contribute to this form of diabetes. These include heredity and exposure to particular viruses.

Medical experts continue to conduct clinical research. Unfortunately, there is no known cure for Type 1 diabetes until now. The good news is that it can be controlled. Special or beta cells in the pancreas at the rear of our stomach produce insulin hormones. Insulin transfers glucose to the cells. It is stored and used for energy. Real causes remain but these are most likely autoimmune disorders.

Such condition happens when the immune system attacks and obliterates healthy body tissues by mistake.

Type 1 diabetes is inherited through generations

Initial symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes, which takes place when the patient’s blood sugar is too high includes the following: feeling of being too thirsty; hunger; tiredness or fatigue; hazy eye vision; feeling of tingling sensation in the feet; loss of weight; and, frequent urination. There can also be deep and fast breathing; nervousness; rapid palpitation of the heart; excessive perspiration; and, faintness.

On the other hand, cancers are diseases distinguished by uncontrollable cell growth. Medical research disclosed that there are more than 100 different types of cancers. Cancer can injure the body when damaged cells divide to form inflammation or masses of tissue known as tumors. The exception is leukemia. This cancer prevents normal blood functions through irregular cell division in the blood stream. Tumors grow and affect digestive, nervous, and circulatory systems. Tumors remaining in one area and demonstrate restricted growth are usually considered benign.

Medical professionals make it clear that the sooner any form of cancer is detected and subject to treatment procedures, the higher the chance that it can be given a remedy Certain forms of cancers like skin, prostate, rectal, breast, mouth, and testicles can be detected by routine self examination and other screening techniques. These should be performed before symptoms get to be severe.

Majority of cancer cases are diagnosed through the presence of tumors and other symptoms. In certain instances, cancer is recognized as a result of the evaluation made by doctors More severe or malignant tumors form when the cancerous cell moves throughout the body making use of blood or lymph systems. These destroy normal tissues by means of a process commonly described as “invasion”. Cells can also split and turn out new blood vessels in a method called angiogenesis. These are some things that you have to be aware of.

IT Supports Contemporary Cancer Detection & Treatments

There is the so-called health information technology. It quickens the speed, scale and span in responding to cancer-related queries. IT is employed in securing data of cancer patients and supports the standardization of care processes. Moreover, technology can enhance cancer cure from the perspective of patients. It can also be part of an overall strategy for systems improvement.

 

 

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Meanwhile, the National Cancer Institute has sponsored several pilot computer clouds filled up with genomic or genetic cancer information. Clinical cancer researchers for more useful information in addressing cancer diseases can access these. The Institute has a Center for Biomedical Informatics and Technology to take care of all possible IT solutions in this regard.

 

How Computer Clouds Could Help Cure Cancer

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Therapy for cancers generally consist of an amalgamation of chemotherapy, radiation methodology and growth inhibitors. Success of these techniques depends on numerous factors. The problem is cancerous cells often resist drugs or treatments do not have the capacity to address tumors directly. Specialists are also studying innovative imaging examinations to evaluate abnormalities that can develop into breast cancers.

These are comprised of Molecular Breast Imaging that makes use of a radioactive tracer, which is injected into the vein. The tracer clings to cancer cells and identified by a unique camera-like device. The technique is currently under study by radiologists. Scientists are performing research to upgrade the technology and analyze its use in particular situations. 3-D Mammography is an expansion of the digital mammogram. The breast is squeezed while a special machine captures low dosage x-rays while moving over the breast. Images can be put together into tri-dimensional form.

Treatment that is backed up by sophisticated technology includes Oncoplastic Surgery. This is meant for breast cancer in its early stage. There are two categories. One is Partial Mastectomy and the other is Lumpectomy. Chemotherapy drugs are designed for breast cancers in advanced stages. This type of drugs target cancers brought about by BRCA (1 and 2) mutations. BRCA refers to human genes, which produce suppressor proteins for tumors. Said proteins help in repairing damaged DNA molecules. The drug is known as Pharmacological or PARP inhibitors.

It has shown potentials in curing prostate and ovarian aside from breast cancers. 

 

What's new in breast cancer research and treatment?

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Image Guided Therapy (Radiation) facilitates distinct treatment advantage. It carries the potential of achieving incomparable tumor control and thinning of normal tissues. The radiation rays can be formed to go with the dimensions of a tumor. High dosage of radiation can be brought to the malignant area without damaging the normal tissues around the area. Tumors can move during a session of radiation treatment as well as from one treatment to another. This is the result of ordinary internal organ action such as breathing, digestion and elimination and minor differences in the way a patient is placed for treatment.

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy affords probable benefits for the cure of numerous cancers. The technology allows radiation oncologists to flood cancer cells with excessive doses of radiation compared to those delivered previously. It maintains minimal exposure for normal tissues. The Three Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy makes use of a Cancer Treatment (CT) simulator. This equipment enables physicians to conduct tri-dimensional mapping for precision and focused targeting of tumors. Oncologists can perform stimulation with higher speed. This is between 15 to 30 minutes as against the traditional stimulation of one to three hours. The new technique is more comfortable for patients.

Finally, the High Dose Rate Brach therapy deliver concentrated doses directly to the tumor without touching the contiguous organs and tissues. The primary instrument is a catheter to produce radioactive sources.

 

Advanced Technology to Treat Cancer

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Consider the following data 

The World Health Organization says that all types of cancers are the foremost causes of deaths in the world with approximately 8.2 million in 2012 alone. 30 percent of cancer fatalities are the result of diet risks; excessive body mass index or BMI; low consumption of fruits and vegetables; insufficient exercise; and, use of alcohol and tobacco. Over 60 percent of cancer cases took place in Asia, Africa, South America, and Central America. The WHO expects the figures to rise to 22 million within the next 20 years.

Type 1 Diabetes is acknowledged as the most common type of Diabetes globally. It affects mostly youngsters.

The United Sates has the third biggest number of confirmed Diabetes cases worldwide with 17.9 million and another 5.7 million have not been diagnosed. The highest is in Finland followed by Sardinia.

The incidence of Type 1 Diabetes is growing by three to five percent all over the world.

Information technology Role

Information technology supports contemporary Cancer and Type 1 Diabetes detection and treatments.

It quickens the speed, scale and span in responding to cancer-related queries. IT is employed in securing data of cancer patients and supports the standardization of care processes. Moreover, technology can enhance cancer cure from the perspective of patients. It can also be part of an overall strategy for systems improvement. Therapy for cancers generally consist of an amalgamation of chemotherapy, radiation methodology and growth inhibitors. Success of these techniques depends on numerous factors. The problem is cancerous cells often resist drugs or treatments do not have the capacity to address tumors directly.

Type 1 Diabetes is described as a disorder that can be treated. Yet, it is for the most part a disease that cannot be cured. Technology has made possible technology-driven solutions, which are being studied carefully such as Cell encapsulation. This process takes the place of pancreatic functions. The result is the formation of an artificial pancreas obtained from bio-engineered tissues that contain the islet cells of the pancreas. This implant is made to secrete appropriate amounts of insulin and other compounds to regulate blood glucose. Cell encapsulation has not been proven in humans but holds a potential for success.

Clinical Software

One revolutionary accomplishment is the development of software applications for use in clinical experiments and medical research. More and more IT companies are producing programs that can help researchers in their initiatives. For instance, Electronic Health Records are integrated with scientific tests to determine appropriate target patients and connect with researchers and patients as well. One such company (Novartis, Pfizer and Eli Lilly and Company) is collaborating with the United States to provide a modern platform that facilitates access to information regarding medical experimentation. The platform is designed to improve research and unleashed early this year. There is a database of roughly 50 clinical research studies from participating institutions.

It is expected to provide more exhaustive and patient-friendly information about said experiments including machine-decipherable “target health profiles”. This is expected to upgrade the capacity of healthcare software that will fit individual health reports for relevant clinical tests. Patients can look for trials through the so-called Blue Button data. This will not be kept outside of the patient’s application to maintain data privacy. The Blue Button data will be utilized only as an index for searching. The other supporters of scientific studies may upload information in relation to their trials while software firms create tools to deliver this data for interested patients.

Meanwhile, prominent private entities like Molecular Health have joined hands with SAP to develop software programs. These solutions are meant to help oncologists come up with better treatment assessment for patients. The goal is to put together support solutions for cancer treatment decisions with SAP HANA platform. The output is a database technology (in-memory) that can analyze extensive data volume. It will employ both prognostic and retrospective components within HANA to reduce time for analysis. The software can help researchers obtain huge volumes of data and conduct complicated analytics.

The solution allows cancer specialists to make use of an amalgamation of experimental data and well as molecular information to choose the most effective remedy for cancer patients. There will be treatment alternatives suitable for individual patients with evidence garnered from cancer research. Ultimately, this will enable these scientists and medical practitioners to develop cancer-specific remedial system models, which consist of perturbation and previous therapy data.

Translational Research

Breakthroughs have been made because of the combination of technology development; successive and consistent research efforts; and clinical experimentation. Likewise, there has been a novel approach called cancer translational research. Medical researchers have focused their sights on another level making use of the genetic matter called Deoxyribonucleic and Ribonucleic acids (DNA and RNA). These are suffused into cells of human beings to fight diseases. This innovative kind of treatment is currently being weighed up through scientific research for different cancer diseases.

Medical documents disclosed that many researchers are engaged in research efforts to find out how the patient'simmune system can react against cancer. Gene therapy is utilized to step up the body's natural capacity in dealing with cancer cells. Scientists are now looking deeply into the inclusion of genes into cancer cells to make them more reactive to contemporary treatments like chemotherapy andradiation therapy. Medical researchers are in the midst of concerted studies to unearth ways and means in coping with cancer symptoms and causes making use of gene treatment. Certain techniques necessitate going for healthy cells and boost their capabilities to combat cancer while other seek to destroy cancer cells and prevent their development.

In cancer translational research, the so-called 1-2-3 progressions is comprised of three stages:

Medical experts look for cancer genetic materials and find out about the action of these genes and show the elements that embrace cancer.

Practitioners try to search for relevant medications that can eradicate these genetic materials.

Studies are carried out and reports are made to settle on the potency of these medicines. This is aimed at resolving flaws and save patients from the suffering sand pointless expenses for useless cures.

The phase described as cancer translational research, is the method used to look for new treatments for people afflicted with cancers. This exceptional medical approach has revolutionized the present system. It also provides hope for women with breast cancer and tumors. Until now, modern inventions have been assisting medical experts to ascertain the real meaning of molecular marks as potential solutions for cancers. Until lately, radiation therapy has been the only option for cancer patients. The appearance of gene therapy can improve what has been started in cancer translational research.

Image Guided Therapy (Radiation) facilitates distinct treatment advantage. It carries the potential of achieving incomparable tumor control and thinning of normal tissues. The radiation rays can be formed to go with the dimensions of a tumor. High dosage of radiation can be brought to the malignant area without damaging the normal tissues around the area. Tumors can move during a session of radiation treatment as well as from one treatment to another. This is the result of ordinary internal organ action such as breathing, digestion and elimination and minor differences in the way a patient is placed for treatment.

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy affords probable benefits for the cure of numerous cancers. The technology allows radiation oncologists to flood cancer cells with excessive doses of radiation compared to those delivered previously. It maintains minimal exposure for normal tissues. The Three Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy makes use of a Cancer Treatment (CT) simulator. This equipment enables physicians to conduct tri-dimensional mapping for precision and focused targeting of tumors. Oncologists can perform stimulation with higher speed. This is between 15 to 30 minutes as against the traditional stimulation of one to three hours. The new technique is more comfortable for patients.

Finally, the High Dose Rate Brach therapy deliver concentrated doses directly to the tumor without touching the contiguous organs and tissues. The primary instrument is a catheter to produce radioactive sources. 

 

Advanced Technology to Treat Cancer

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Nanotechnology for Cancer Cure

NANO materials technology can be merged with other cancer treatments. Recent experiments showed that concentration of local drugs (up to six-fold) has the capability of keeping in check tumor growth more effectively.

The treatment is less toxic with no multi-resistance to drugs and minimal side effects. According to studies, Nanotechnology (NANOGRAPHENE Oxide) can break through fairly large gaps (100-600mm) found in tumors and seek out cancerous cells more successfully. It is possible to change the size and surface properties of said materials. Chemical engineers can also regulate distribution of drugs so these will not damage non-cancerous cells.

 

Targeting technology may benefit cancer treatment

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Nanotechnology is being developed but these are not the usual intricate small machines that are normally related to this technology. On the contrary, these are minute particles which are the size of 100,000 nanometers wide and red blood cells with 4,000 nanometers (diameter). Initial cancer nanotech applications involve detection.

Nano particles are capable of recognizing the cancer's molecular signatures. These collect the proteins generated by cancerous cells. Other nano elements can stick to cancerous cells. When these are observed under the magnetic resonance imager (MRI) or fluorescent light, it shows cancers which are concealed from the human eyes. Nanotechnology provides the opportunity to detect cancer tumors at the rate of 1,000 cells. 

Nanotechnology in cancer cure proposes some interesting possibilities like the destruction of cancer tumors with the least damage to healthy tissues and organs. It can also discover and eliminate cancer cells before these can form tumors. However, majority of initiatives to bolster cancer treatment utilizing nanotechnology are still at the research or development phase. Nonetheless, there is widespread partnership among professional and academic researchers to address certain major issues in the use of nanotechnology for cancer remedies.

One treatment employs targeted chemotherapy which unleashed tumor-killing agents described as tumor necrosis factor alpha or TNF to cure cancer tumors.  The TNF is joined with a gold Nano particle and Thiol-derivatized polyethylene glycol. It enables the Nano particle to run through the blood stream without the risk of being attacked. 

There is a technique undergoing current clinical experiments to determine if heat can destroy these tumors. The Auro Shells take up infrared light coming from a laser and turns this light into heat. Another approach is the delivery of chemotherapy drugs to cancer cells. This procedure also applies heat to the cell. Scientists use the gold Nano rods to which the DNA strands are connected. The DNA fiber serves as framework and holds the shaft and chemotherapy drug together. When the infrared beam illuminates the cancer tumor, the gold rod absorbs the infrared light and converts it into heat. Heat releases the chemotherapy drug and helps in destroying cancer cells. 

 

Nanotechnology in Cancer Treatment

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Curing Type 1 Diabetes with IT and Nanotechnology

Aggressive medical studies have helped in modernizing treatment of Diabetes during the last five decades. An obsolete method involved a narrow band mixed with human urine. It provides an estimate of the amount of insulin placed in their injection. This was not very precise and far from being convenient. In modern times, diabetes patients can use electronic blood sugar monitors which release automatic readings every five minutes. 

At the same time, there are small insulin pumps which are strapped to patient’s belts. This facilitates insulin injections right below the skin. Type 1 Diabetes is described as a disorder that can be treated. Yet, it is for the most part a disease that cannot be cured.

Technology has made possible technology-driven solutions which are being studied carefully such as Cell encapsulation. This process takes the place of pancreatic functions. The result is the formation of an artificial pancreas obtained from bio-engineered tissues that contain the islet cells of the pancreas. This implant is made to secrete appropriate amounts of insulin and other compounds to regulate blood glucose. Cell encapsulation has not been proven in humans but holds a potential for success.

Restoration of islet cells is a fresh approach where disintegrating islet cells are allowed to proliferate to keep their functions. On the other hand, stem cell research continues for the rejuvenation of and development of islet cells from the body. This reduces the probability of your immune system reacting negatively to the artificial endocrine and digestive gland.

Gene therapy as a remedy for Type 1 diabetes is also being studied carefully. This is the technique of using a virus agent to bring the insulin gene for reactivation to high blood glucose.  Patients afflicted with Type 1 diabetes mellitus need permanent insulin therapy. 

Many of these people require two or more injections of insulin every day. Doses are changed according to self-monitoring of blood glucose concentration. By and large, the emergence of this type of diabetes is characterized by “Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)”. This is followed by a symptom-free “period” in which the symptoms slacken and the patient requires a small amount or no insulin at all. This decrease is a result of a partial return of endogenous insulin emission. It may last for several weeks or months or even up to two years. Eventually, the disease comes back and patients need insulin therapy.

 

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

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Indeed, Nanotechnology holds considerable promise for medicine particularly to aid in research and possible treatment for multiple cancers. The opportunities in Nano medicine consist of formulation of effective delivery of drugs which are activated only when necessary.

These can be engineered microscopic organisms which turn out human hormones. Or, these can be Nano robots that can move alone around the body. It can act as an enhancement or replacement for the immune system, red blood cells, or other biological systems. Although most of these applications still need to be reviewed and experimented on, the research is producing positive results. In fact, there is plenty of clinical research being undertaken to help discover a cure for chronic maladies like Type 1 Diabetes.

There are several applications of Nanotechnology for the proper management of Diabetes.

Oral Insulin is one. At present, Insulin for Type 1 diabetes is delivered through injection. The reason is insulin administered orally has reduced effectiveness. It becomes unpalatable due to the acidity or sourness in the stomach. The large size indicates that it is absorbed at a snail's pace. In other words, it can even be digested partly by enzymes in the intestines before this is eventually absorbed into the body.

It has been found out that Nano particles of Chitosan may be utilized as a carrier for oral insulin. This compound is a by-product of Chitin. It is a raw structural polymer which can be found in crustaceans and mildew. It safeguards the insulin from digestive juices and permits the same insulin to be taken in into the bloodstream right away. The Chitosan Nano particles are comparatively easy to produce. These are completely bio-compatible so the technology must be realized on a relatively short duration.

The existing methods of monitoring blood glucose are invasive and results in a lot of pain for the patient. For instance, the finger prick test has been related to failure of adhering to treatment regimen by diabetic patients. Besides, the methodology has very limited accuracy. This cannot be done during other human activities like driving, sports or even sleeping. The irregular features mean that it has the tendency of missing essential and possibly dangerous points and fluctuations of blood sugar (glucose) levels in between these tests.

Fortunately, there are various improved and non-invasive techniques that result to the uninterrupted monitoring of blood glucose. These have been practiced during the last few years. These advances in medical technology have been made possible by information and Nano technology. Nano sensors can use carbon Nano tube electrodes to measure glucose concentrations on a selective basis. The Nano tubes allow the presence of sugar to change the presence of sugar and current flow down to the conductive Nano tubes.

 

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Conclusion

Will advances in nanotechnology and information technology be a game changer for the treatment and diagnosis of cancer and diabetes? The answer is yes and research in the area would benefit our existing and future generations. There has sincere been in efforts being made using information technology & Nanotechnology in finding cure for these deadly non-curable health condition. In addition many groups all over the world have been advocating to Congress to through JDRF Advocacy community, & A Breaking Update On Special Diabetes Program Renewal in best interest of our global community. We encourage you to get involved the race for cure as your heart and support matters.

QUOTES

"The purpose of life is to live it, to taste experience to the utmost, to reach out eagerly and without fear for newer and richer experience. " ~ Eleanor Roosevelt

"Don't deny the diagnosis; try to defy the verdict. " ~ Norman Cousins

"Let food be your medicine, and let medicine be your food. " ~ Hippocrates "It's not the years in your life that count. It's the life in your years. " ~Abraham Lincoln

"My cancer scare changed my life. I'm grateful for every new, healthy day I have. It has helped me prioritize my life. " ~Olivia Newton-John

"My father was a great man. Even though I lost him to cancer but he spent his last decade serving the needy, giving hope to all." Prince Amir Al Saud

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