Global Initiative in Improving Quality of Drinking Water
Drinking water quality has been a disturbing concern in underdeveloped nations especially Sub-Saharan Africa. Sources of potable water are threatened by contamination. The following are conditions and procedures in improving quality of drinking water in the top six African nations (in terms of GDP)
Nigeria (657.218 GDP)
Access to water supply and sanitation facilities are very mediocre in Nigeria. Majority of the country’s communities are filled with overcrowded dwellings, malfunctioning waste disposal systems, water pollution, and insufficient water/sanitation services. The key is to establish water and sanitation agencies particularly in residential areas. Likewise, government must implement the structure for rural water delivery promptly. Urban water providers also need additional subsidies for operations and regular maintenance.
There have local interventions in Nigeria recently. For instance, supply of public drinking water has been packaged in hygienic sachets and sold commercially. Likewise, the Ministry of Water resources has been conducting continuous research on how to tap stable water sources for the country’s population of more than 165 million. Most of Nigeria’s water supply comes from surface water. Many multi-national companies have water purifying facilities in the country but drinking water has become very expensive making it more difficult for poor citizens of Nigeria.
South Africa (352.528 GDP)
South Africa is also confronted with issues on how to ensure that water resources are abundant and clean. There is an increasing problem of toxicity in the country’s water resources because of bacterial growth which includes Salmonella and Escherichia Coli. The microorganisms can cause serious kidney ailments, diarrhea, intestinal ailments, and arthritis. Acid mine drainage also contributes to poisonous water in South Africa. More than 100 mining firms dump uranium, low-grade ore and sulfide deposits in fresh water sources.
The government is capping and sealing mine caves and monitoring contaminated water closely. These procedures stop toxic water from flowing out of the mines. Contaminated water goes through desalination and chemical treatment methods. The other is the so-called Passive Underground Mine Water Purification (PUMP) System. This will make use of geology, biology and engineering models combined with advanced technology to minimize sulfate concentrations as well as increase water pH content. The South African government Water Affairs Department only has $33 million for this project but the projected cost is $35.5 billion.
Egypt (342.267 GDP)
Egypt is doing everything to make sure that people have access to drinking water. Now, even poor Egyptians have access to sanitation and afford to purchase drinking water. The quality of drinking water in remote and poorer areas has improved significantly. The Government, United Nations Children’s Fund and other private sector stakeholders have come up with a revolving fund to help poor people gain access to clean water and hygiene through financing which can be paid through installments.
Behira Water and Drainage Company (BWADC), the Egyptian water organization is accountable for supply of drinking water and waste water dispensation. The company is hard-pressed to manage contamination of drinking water sources which are the Nile River, irrigation canals and connected water ducts. These are caused by untouched waste water, agriculture and industry. World Water Net is involved in imparting knowledge and giving advice to the counterpart organization at waste water treatment plants. Suggested improvements have produced an increase in the volume of processed waste water. However, this company must contend with political and organizational developments after the Egyptian polls in 2012.
Algeria (227.802 GDP)
Algeria owns the Hamma Seawater Desalination plant which uses technology to guarantee drinking water for its population. In 2008, it was the biggest reverse-osmosis desalination facility in Africa. It commenced a government initiative to make certain reliable and continuous provision of clean water to the water-famished capital of Algiers as well as other parts of the country.
The three-pronged effort involved desalination in the coastline and dams in the heart of Algeria along with transfer of water in the southern areas. It was aimed at reducing water stress and preventing mass actions. Water dearth was aggravated by the exhaustion of underground water table and obsolete infrastructure. Hamma was the initial step. The government progressed considerably with the building of additional facilities. It serves as example of a partnership between the private and public sector that contributed extensively to improved water service.
Angola (131.407 GDP)
Angola is known for the highest rate of diarrhea in the whole world. The main reasons for these are impure water, scarce storm water drain systems, and insufficient sanitation facilities. The water supply and sanitation sector of this country is the least developed in this region because of more than 40 years of never-ending civil strife.
Noteworthy water sector changes started with the enactment of the 2002 General Water Law and establishment of the 2003 Water Sector Development Strategy. The Water Strategy Act entailed decentralization of WSS service delivery to independent provincial water and sanitation utilities particularly in rural areas. Unfortunately, there is shortage of financial, managerial, and technical capabilities. Reforms call for the formation of a regulatory agency to develop and implement delivery standards and establishment of public enterprises for water services provision.
Morocco (112.552 GDP)
Upgrading supply of drinking water in Morocco requires building up supply to cities along the Rabat-Casablanca area. Said project is in accordance with the national water strategy of this African nation. It is related to satisfying Morocco’s water requirements water and designed based on priorities. This project can enhance quality and quantity of potable water supply to roughly five million people living in rural areas. These will certainly have positive consequences for the health of Moroccan children and counter possible hygiene issues in the country.
Deteriorating quality jeopardizes global gains achieved in improve people’s access to safe drinking water. Unsafe water handling and storage of aggravates this problem. Water obtained from supposedly safe sources may be tainted before it even reaches African households.