Brief History of Macedonia with Possible Solutions
Macedonia is one of the classic heritage places with a 1000 year old history. Philip II was the brave emperor whose rapiers were sparkling in gorgeous regality and vanity. Alexander, the great emperor who conquered many territories in India, is the son of Philip II. Later Macedonia territory was extended through the Vardar River and Thessaly.
Macedonia in 5th Century
In the 5th century, some unrecognized Slavic tribal communities were seen occupying Balkan areas. Their activities were visible also in Peloponnesian and the Central part. Gradually, Slavic tribes mixed with local folks of Greek. In middle ages, Byzantine kingdom, the Byzantine impact was synergized with the conventional culture of Greek. In 14th Century, Dusan the Great (Serbian ruler) restored his power to control the large area of Byzantine. Serbian rulers spread the holy doctrines of Bible to other parts. In 1389, Turk emperors approached with serpentine troops to possess some areas in Macedonia. Greek has not recognized Macedonia as a separate autonomous entity. It is not an independent state. 4000 years back, people in Macedonia had to communicate in national language of Greek. They have no own identity or cultural importance due to the strong influence of Greek. So, Macedonia is still a legal portion of Greek territory. However, these allegations have been refuted by modern Macedonians who are proud of having autonomy and independence. The counter allegations launched by Macedonians prioritize the legal autonomy with sovereignty. In thousand years back, Greeks called Macedonians as outsiders or barbarians. Macedonians had a harmonious native language for correspondence. In 1913, Macedonia was declared a separate independent country. So, Greece can’t disfigure the true history about the legal independence won by Macedonians.
Brygian Nomads Settled in Macedonia
Experienced historians state that Greek nomads were believed to start excursion from Balkans to Greece. Few uncivilized Greek nomads planned to pass through uneven hilly texture of Thessaly. Some chanted their routes to march through Epirus. Asia Minor is the landmark for Greek nomads to settle. However, Greek nomads never created or built up ancient Macedonia. Brygians were visible in remote regions located in Macedonia. A section of Brygian nomads stepped into the province of Asia Minor and they formed Herodotus Empire after renewing their native identity. Phrygians fall in the same line-up of Brygians. On the other hand, same immigration and exodus took place in Thrace, Illyria and few coastal areas under the territory of Macedonia. Greek wanderers chose Italy, France, Scythia and Asia Minor for relocation. However, they overlooked the significance of old Macedonia. They didn’t stay longer in Macedonia due to the low interest.
Macedonians couldn’t welcome newcomers from Greece. They were passive to congratulate Greek nomads. Instead they were happy to live with Scythians coming from Russia or Ukraine. Greek and Macedonia were not befriended. Even Alexander was not honored by Greek elite class when he searched for permission to participate in Olympic game in Athens. He was a barbarian and Greek never valued uncivilized barbarian. Thucydidis who was a renowned Greek scholar and historian also used the term “barbarian” at the time of writing research content about Macedonians. In 338 BC, Macedonian ruler knocked down Greek emperor at Chaeronea battle. In this way, Greek lost kingdom
In approximately 168 BC, Romans forced Macedonian and Greek rulers to admit defeat at Pydna battle. Romans extended the territory through the annexation of Greek and Macedonia. However, Greek fought back to disperse Macedonians by sending troops in Macedonian war. Philip V was summoned to declare the submission to Roman emperors. After the displacement of Macedonian regime, Latin language was recommended as the official communication system.
9th Century for Transition in Macedonia
In sixth century, Slaves expanded their communities in Illyria, Thrace, Macedonia, and Greece. Therefore, modern Macedonian language has the Slavic flavor. 9th century is marked as the transition for Macedonians to systemize their language and literature. This ninth century is the phase for futuristic workout for Macedonians to harmonize the language refining many Slavic terms. Macedonian kings successfully resisted foreign invasions. Armenian, Bulgarian and Syrian armies were boldly resisted by Macedonian rulers. However, with the coming of 15th century, Ottoman Turks proceeded to take possession of territories in Macedonia and Greek. Some provinces of Balkan were also forcefully seized by Ottoman Turks. Macedonians didn’t spare Turks. They went for gathering countrymen to invite Turk enemies to the battlefield. The uprising in Macedonia was a starting point or gateway for freedom movement. Razlog and Kresna were ignited in protest, violence and street melee to discard the subjection to Turkey emperors.
The 19th century was the period for struggles to have freedom. Bloodshed violence changed atmosphere in the society of Macedonia.
In 1912, First Balkan War broke out. Serbians, Bulgarians and Greek rebels invaded Ottoman Empire. Macedonia also urged for separation from Ottoman Turks. At last in Bucharest, the partition of Macedonia was announced to stop vandalism. Balkan War in 1912 to 1913 dissolved Ottoman kingdom. Most of important regions of Europe were given to Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece. This land allocation also annexed modern Macedonia with Serbia through a mutual partition.
In 1915, Bulgarian rulers collaborated with Central Powers to have had mileage over the land occupation in Macedonia. However, with the cessation of First World War, Macedonia was shifted to Serbian occupied territory. Same time, an anti-Bulgarian crusade was experienced by people as many innocent talented Bulgarian scholars and teachers were expelled from Macedonia. In 1940, to make the Bulgarian exodus fruitful, Serbian rulers tried to send battalions of Serbs to stay in Macedonia. The Serbian colonization homework was finalized.
Intervention of NATO and UN
ASNOM declared that People’s Republic Of Macedonia was a legal part of People’s Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Macedonia got independence in 1991. This nation was separated from Yugoslavia. After few changes, the border of Macedonia was drawn. However, Kosovo war in 1999 again incubated another conflict when Albanian asylum seekers tried to take shelters in Macedonia. The dispute about the Albanian refugee rehabilitation gave rise to internal insurgency. However NATO and UN intervened to reduce military coup in Macedonia. More legal power and status would be given to Albanians. In return they will not do anti-national activities to demolish the administration of Macedonia.
Nazi in Germany Wanted to Make Macedonia a Separate State with Sovereignty
In Second World War, Nazi in Germany had unbroken stamina to proceed for victory. Nazi claimed that Macedonia must be a new territory without the intervention from Bulgaria which ruled this territory after overpowering Yugoslavia. In between, Soviet army reached the borderline of Bulgaria for encroachment probably in 1944. At that time Bulgaria had to soften the voice to support the negotiation for survival. Bulgarian government negotiated with Western allied forces.
Modern Macedonia with New Economic Infrastructure
Macedonia is one of the modernized reformatory nations with new economic infrastructure. The growth in economy of Macedonia continues with 3.2 percent GDP in 2015.
The Macedonian government combated the recession by updating foreign investment schemes. Small and medium business set-ups get funds from government to improve trading. The inflation rate was also reduced.
In 2006, Macedonians had only 3 percent inflation rate. In 2007 inflation came down to 2 percent. It is expected to be 0.4% in 2016 and shall end up to 2.5% in 2020.
The flow of foreign investment considerably heightened up to enhance the firmness and stability of the national economy in Macedonia.
Political Landmark in Macedonia
After being independent, Macedonia has started a new political era with introduction of parliamentary type democracy. There is an executive government with the unicameral legislature. Members to form the government must be elected by people. President has the supreme political power.
Naming Dispute- NATO’s Urge for Peaceful Settlement
Macedonia has improved its foreign relationship by winning membership in NATO. It is also a member of EU to remove long standing dispute and deadlock. United States of America welcomed Macedonian participation in NATIO and EU organizations. The bilateral relationship with White House turned positive with new resolutions.
In 1996, first American Ambassador was appointed to hold the office in Skopje. In 2004, America confirmed its support in recognizing Republic of Macedonia. However, the name dispute put Macedonia government in chaos.
When Macedonia applied for joining NATO alliance, Greece brought a controversial issue regarding state naming.
Macedonia is a region in Greece. So, Republic Macedonia can’t use the same name officially. Greece had no objection to accept the membership of Macedonia to join NATO if it is called Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
UN and NATO urged for removing the naming dispute in amicable way.
The statement of James R Clapper, chief of American Intelligence Force intensifies the current ethnic conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovin.
The political situation is volatile/ changeable in Macedonia. The ethnic clash, regional vandalism and insurgency are accelerating in Macedonia. EU is not confident of approaching to Macedonia with the new membership offer due to this critical discord over state naming issue. In this way, international relationship is being hampered. Clapper is not getting any instant solution for Macedonia to overcome the impasse.
In 2015, Bulgaria and Greece took abrupt decisions to block the routes of Macedonian to apply for EU membership. Allegation against Skopje lies in the failure of solving issues regarding domestic ethnic insurgency, violence and the naming controversy.
Macedonia needs to relook at internal problems to establish a solid republic state. Bosnia, Albania and Herzegovin conflicts should not be reared up. Peace talks with Bosnia and Albania insurgents must be fruitful.